The water channel
A water channel is a waterway that is dug between water bodies, such as seas and oceans, and the most prominent examples of water channels is the Suez Canal, which is a waterway between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the channels are divided into irrigation channels and goods transport channels, where irrigation channels are used for crops Agricultural, especially the vast areas, while the sacrifice channels are a passage for ships and boats, so they are larger, while the length of the waterway is related to the distance between the two water bodies, and the water channels that have become a tourist attraction also, Dubai Water Canal, where the channel was built with the goal of Also There is greater commercial and tourist momentum for the city, connected to the Arabian Gulf, and internationally known for its waterway in Venice in Venice, Italy, where it passes in the city center.
The Suez Water Canal is one of the most prominent and largest projects in the world, as it is one of the largest waterways in the world, and it is a channel linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, with a length of about 193 km. The Indian Ocean, while the Mediterranean is linked to the Atlantic Ocean, and it passes through the cities of Port Said and Ismailia in addition to Suez, and after the opening of the canal, ships are now able to roam between Asia and Europe during a period of time less than previously, and the channel is characterized by the passage of ships in two directions, and its authority and management return mechanism Yea Suez Canal, an Egyptian body affiliated to the Prime Minister in Egypt, which is the official body empowered to impose fees on ships crossing the channel.
The Suez Canal has gone through difficult periods since its inauguration, and after the announcement of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser to nationalize the canal, the matter was not that easy, as Egypt went through difficult wars and decisions that affected its economy and public policies, and after Abdel Nasser’s decision, the Suez Canal administration became in the hands of an Egyptian body affiliated to the presidency The ministers in Egypt are called the Suez Canal Authority, where the authority supervises several matters, most notably the collection of transit fees and the drawing of their policies, and the authority is one of the most money-generating institutions in Egypt, where the average annual revenue of the canal business is about 5 to 6 billion USD , Five ports were built on The channel, which is:
- East Port Said Port.
- West Port Said Port.
- Sokhna port.
- Suez Port.
- Literary port.
Establishment of the Suez Canal
The establishment of the Suez Canal dates back to 1859, when excavation work began, and it continued for 10 years until 1869, and the establishment of the canal was supervised by a French company, where it obtained the right to operate the canal for 99 years in exchange for drilling and foundation work, and the founding process required about a million Egyptian workers Reports indicated that about 120,000 of them died as a result of hunger, epidemic and the ill treatment they were subjected to during the drilling process. The first idea of the Suez Canal had come to mind Napoleon during the French campaign against Egypt in 1798, but he did not succeed in crystallizing it on land Reality, before it was opened during the reign of A. Of the Ottoman Empire under the jurisdiction of Muhammad Saeed Pasha at the time.
The nationalization of the Suez Canal
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser decided to nationalize the Suez Canal in 1956 specifically on July 26, but the decision did not receive approval from major countries in the world, as the decision was in response to the withdrawal of financing for the construction of the High Dam in Egypt by the World Bank and the United States of America And Britain, and after the decision, international reactions emerged, foremost of which was the freezing of Egyptian balances in England and other countries, and the Egyptian president’s decision included 6 main items, in the forefront of which was the nationalization of the Suez Canal International Company to an Egyptian joint stock company, and the dissolution of all the committees based on the management of the channel at that time. The reaction is limited to p Z economic decisions, where he soon declared Israel, France and Britain, countries of military intervention, and the beginning of the tripartite aggression against Egypt.
Triple aggression against Egypt
The Suez War, as the Western media called it, began on October 29, 1956, and its location was in the Sinai and Suez region, where the countries of Israel, Britain, and France launched a military operation on Egyptian soil in response to the Egyptian decision to nationalize the Suez Canal. The beginning was on Monday, October 29, when Israel began a military attack on Egypt, before Britain launched an air strike on Cairo on the evening of Wednesday, corresponding to the 31st of the same month, and French aircraft appeared over the Sinai, which was made worse by Egypt’s lack of preparedness at the time of the war, and the corresponding Saturday, November 3, was more days The war is so intense S skies Egypt sacked British Airways, and the war continued until the intervention of the United States of America and the declaration of a ceasefire on the seventh of November 1956.